What is the DTC?

DTC eligibility is a concern of both OTC Issuers and their Shareholders since it determines whether or not an Issuer’s securities can be electronically traded through “book-entry” rather than through the movement of actual paper stock certificates.

If an Issuer’s securities are not DTC eligible, it is difficult to find a market for its shares.  Securities lawyers who practice OTC securities law are often asked questions about DTC eligibility and perhaps the most often is “What is the DTC?”

DTC is the World’s Largest Securities Depository

The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”)  is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (“DTCC”).  DTC describes itself as “the world’s largest securities depository” and is structured as a limited-purpose trust company and classified as a “banking organization” under the New York Banking Law.

DTC is also a member of the Federal Reserve System, and a  “clearing corporation” under the New York Uniform Commercial Code, and a “clearing agency” registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

DTC Works With Broker-Dealer Participants Not Directly With Issuers

DTC holds securities of DTC eligible Issuers, provides asset servicing and also facilitates the post-trade settlement among Direct Participants of sales in deposited securities, through electronic computerized book-entry transfers and pledges between Direct Participants’ accounts.

DTC does not work directly with OTC public companies, but rather works through its participating broker-dealers, who sponsor the OTC Issuer’s for DTC eligibility.  These broker-dealers are known as DTC Participants.  Among this list of DTC Participants includes every major broker-dealer, and some smaller or lesser known broker-dealers which specialize in OTC Bulletin Board and OTC Markets securities, both in the US and abroad.

DTC Eliminates the Need to Deliver Physical Certificates

DTC’s book-entry transfers of securities essentially eliminates the need for physical movement of stock certificates for OTC Issuers that are DTC eligible.  Instead, DTC Participants essentially book the transactions electronically between one another and no transfer of physical certificates is necessary.   In addition to brokers and dealers, Direct Participants include both U.S. and non-U.S. securities banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations.

Indirect Participants Also Have Access to DTC

DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries.

In addition to access by DTC Direct Participants, access to the DTC system is also available to others such as smaller U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, and clearing corporations that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Direct Participant, either directly or indirectly (“Indirect Participants”).

For this reason, even though Shareholders of OTC Bulletin Board and OTC Markets Pink Sheet stock might have a brokerage account at a little known firm specializing in over-the-counter stocks, these smaller firms clear shares through larger DTC Direct Participants.

The DTC Rules applicable to its Participants are on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission.  More information about DTC can be found at www.dtcc.com.